The English Lake District (World Heritage)
The valleys of the Lake District, a mountain and lake landscape in northwest England, were created by ice age glaciation. The highest point is the Scafell Pike with 978 m above sea level. Human activities such as walled fields, old villas with romantic gardens and parks also contributed to the beauty of the pristine landscape with waterfalls, karen, lakes dammed by moraines and erratic blocks in the lower sections of the valleys. From the 18th century, the Lake District was the destination of artists of the English Romantic period, who captured the atmosphere of the harmonious landscape in paintings, sketches and writings. In 1951 the Lake District National Park (2292 km²) was established.
The English Lake District: Facts
|Official title:||The English Lake District|
|Natural monument:||Mountain and lake landscape in the north west of England|
|Location:||Lake District, in the west of England|
|Meaning:||Mountain and lake landscape in which cultural activities fit harmoniously|
Neanderthal Caves and Surroundings in Gibraltar (World Heritage)
In the limestone cliffs in the eastern part of the Rock of Gibraltar lie four caves in which archaeological and paleontological findings have been made that indicate the presence of Neanderthals over a period of around 125,000 years. Abstract rock engravings as well as traces of hunting birds and marine animals for food and indications of the use of feather headdresses were discovered in the caves. The dwellings are therefore an extraordinary testimony to the Neanderthals’ culture and have answered important questions about the Neanderthals and human evolution.
In the present, the caves are only just above sea level. In the past, a forested coastal landscape stretched out in front of them. The rock engravings are around 39,000 years old, the tools found around 25,000 years old. Perhaps the Neanderthals served the caves as their last refuge. They still lived there when Homo sapiens had already established itself in most parts of Europe.
Neanderthal Caves and Surroundings in Gibraltar: Facts
|Official title:||Neanderthal Caves and surroundings in Gibraltar|
|Cultural monument:||Caves in the Rock of Gibraltar with finds of art and tools, which suggest that Neanderthals were settled for thousands of years|
|Location:||4 caves in the limestone cliffs in the eastern part of the Rock of Gibraltar|
|Meaning:||Testimony to the culture of the Neanderthals|
Forth Bridge (World Heritage)
The Forth Bridge, which spans the mouth of the River Forth on the Scottish east coast, was already an icon of industrial architecture when it was built in the late 19th century. According to hyperrestaurant, the world’s first all-steel bridge was an important element of the continuous rail link between London and Aberdeen.
When the Forth Bridge was opened on March 4, 1890 after seven years of construction, it was a superlative engineering structure: the three cantilevers of the main structure have a span of over 1,600 meters, the entire bridge is almost two and a half kilometers long – a world record that was only set in 1919 by the Quebec Bridge was broken. Of the total weight of 53,000 tons, 4,200 tons were accounted for by the 6.5 million rivets that hold the steel together.
Whereas in other places the taste of the times often preferred the concealment of structural components with historicizing elements, the Forth Bridge shows its steel structural components openly and without make-up, which are spectacularly displayed in the striking red paint. The industrial aesthetics are still impressive today in their massive modernity, especially since the bridge is still in operation. The iconic character of the Forth Bridge is emphasized on Scottish 5 and 20 pound sterling banknotes.
Forth Bridge: facts
|Official title:||Forth Bridge|
|Cultural monument:||1883 to 1890 by John Fowler and Benjamin Baker built steel cantilever bridge with a total length of 2.5 km, 110 m above the (high) water level at the top of the cantilever; still in use today with more than 200 train movements per day|
|Location:||Firth of Forth between Edinburgh and the Fife Peninsula in Scotland|
|Meaning:||The UNECO recognizes the Forth Bridge for its innovative design, material and size as a milestone in bridge construction at a time when the railroad was about to dominate long distance travel over land.|
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal (World Heritage)
The aqueduct in north-east Wales was completed in 1805. The 1.60 m deep and over 300 m long navigable trough bridge is 38.5 m high and thus the highest aqueduct in Great Britain. The cast iron channel rests on 19 stone bridge piers and leads over the Dee. The building is considered a masterpiece of engineering and a symbol of the industrial revolution.
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal: Facts
|Official title:||Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal|
|Cultural monument:||From 1795 to 1805 built stone overpass of a water overhead line including a connected canal (total length 18 km) in North Wales; navigable, approx. 39 m high stone bridge with a length of 307 m on 19 pillars to cross the valley of the river Dee; technically demanding and elegant construction of an artificial waterway with a cast iron, 1.60 m deep and 3.50 m wide trough as a fairway as well as wrought iron arches; highly developed canal construction without locks, for transport in a relatively inaccessible region|
|Location:||Southeast of Trevor, Llangollen, North Wales|
|Meaning:||Civil engineering masterpiece of the early 19th century; important building of the industrial revolution and the necessary transport systems; outstanding example for the development of artificial waterways and large metalworking structures|