Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew

Mining landscape of Cornwall and West Devon (World Heritage)

The mining landscape documents the design of an early industrial cultural landscape during the industrial revolution in the early 19th century. After landowners or private entrepreneurs had set up mines, small towns emerged with smelting works and the typical row houses for working-class families.

Mining Landscapes of Cornwall and West Devon: Facts

Official title: Mining countryside of Cornwall and West Devon
Cultural monument: Characteristic cultural landscape in south-west England, characterized by the development of copper, tin and arsenic mining (1700 to 1914); In the 19th century, two thirds of the world’s copper was mined; Mining heartland in England and starting point for mining technological innovations worldwide; Comprehensive ensembles of an industrial and engineering upheaval in living conditions: mines, canals, rail systems, ports, foundries and smelting plants, own small towns with workers’ houses and mansions, machine houses; World heritage site with ten different mining areas
Continent: Europe
Country: Great Britain
Location: Cornwall, Devon (South West England)
Appointment: 2006
Meaning: Comprehensive, authentic testimony to the changes in the landscape and living environment as a result of the industrial revolution; outstanding industrial and engineering historical sites; Documentation of the paramount importance of Cornwall and West Devon for the industrialization of Great Britain and for the mining industry worldwide

Historic port city of Liverpool (World Heritage)

Six areas in the center of Liverpool are world heritage. According to homosociety, they give impressive testimony to the importance of the port city as a leading trade and transport center in the 18th and 19th centuries. The harbor docks were used until the middle of the 20th century, after which Liverpool began to decline economically. Today the docks have been restored and are home to shops, bars, restaurants and museums.

Historic Port City of Liverpool: Facts

Official title: Historic port city of Liverpool
Cultural monument: Six areas in the historic center and port facilities of Liverpool; one of the leading trade and traffic centers in the 18th and 19th centuries (including slave trade); many important buildings including St George’s Plateau and Albert Dock; Liverpool was placed on the Red List of World Heritage in Danger in 2012. The reason is a planned new building project that would affect the historic character of the docks.
Continent: Europe
Country: Great Britain
Location: Liverpool, in the north west of England
Appointment: 2004
Meaning: Extraordinary example of a globally important port city; Testimony to the early development of world trade in the British Empire

Historic Port City of Liverpool: History

1190 First mentioned as »Liuerpul« (»muddy bay«)
1230 Construction of the castle
1715 Construction of the first dock
1726 Demolition of the castle
1644 18-day siege of the city during the English Civil War
1698 Construction of the church (destroyed in World War II, today its ruin is a memorial)
from 1698 Rise of Liverpool
1807 Prohibition of the slave trade
1880 City law for Liverpool
1972 Opening of Seaforth Dock
2008 European Capital of Culture

Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew (World Heritage)

The Kew Botanical Garden is one of the oldest of its kind in the world and reflects the development of the landscape garden from the 18th to the 20th century. The landmark of Kew is the palm house made of cast iron, steel and glass, which was completed in 1848.

Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew: Facts

Official title: Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew (London)
Cultural monument: One square kilometer park, created in 1759; one of the oldest botanical gardens in the world; around 45,000 plants; numerous greenhouses, including Palm House, Temperate House with the largest houseplant in the world, Rhododendron Dell with over 700 different specimens, rose garden and Queen Charlotte’s Cottage; Library with the world’s largest collection of botany literature; important contributions to the study of the plant world to this day
Continent: Europe
Country: Great Britain
Location: Between Richmond upon Thames and Kew in South West London
Appointment: 2003
Meaning: Testimony to important periods of garden art from the 18th to the 20th century.

Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew: History

1631 Construction of Kew Palace
1759 Plant a herb garden
around 1761 Conversion of the original pleasure gardens by William Chambers into botanical gardens by Princess Augusta of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
1770 Botanist Sir Joseph Banks took over management of Kew Gardens
1802 Entry of King George III. to the Kew Palace
1840 extensive expansion of the gardens
1840-48 Construction of the Palm House
1879 Construction of the Temperate House
1923 Plant of the rose garden
1987 Opening of the Princess of Wales Conservatory

Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew