Blaenavon industrial landscape

Derwent Valley industrial landscape (World Heritage)

The Derwent Valley industrial landscape between Cromfort and Derby, consisting of a network of large spinning mills, is considered to be the nucleus of the industrial revolution. The industrial area extends along the Derwent River and, in addition to the production facilities and a pumping station to drive the steam engines, also includes workers’ settlements and traffic facilities such as railways and canals for transport. The systems served as a model for numerous industrial cities. Here, in 1764, James Hargreaves invented the “Spinning Jenny”, the world’s first mechanical spinning machine.

Derwent Valley Industrial Landscape: Facts

Official title: Derwent Valley industrial landscape
Cultural monument: Association of spinning mills based on Richard Arkwright’s revolutionary inventions to improve textile manufacturing; originated in the valley of the river Derwent between Cromford and Derby (including: Masson Mills, 1783; Cromford Mill, 1771/91; Belper North Mill, 1780); Workers’ settlements (including: Cromford, 1776; Belper, 1780; Milford, 1781; Darly Abbey, 1780), transport facilities (High Peak Junction railway station, 1830; Cromford Canal, 1790; Leawood Pumphouse pumping station, 1849)
Continent: Europe
Country: Great Britain
Location: Cromford and environs, Derbyshire, Central England
Appointment: 2001
Meaning: Cradle of the industrial revolution in textile manufacturing of the 18th century; Example of the first large spinning mills and a new system of work organization

Historic city of St. George (World Heritage)

The historical structure of the city on the Bermuda Islands and the surrounding fortifications document the beginning of British colonial power in the newly discovered areas. Many buildings reflect a piece of colonial history in their architecture. The numerous fortifications in the vicinity of St. George are noteworthy.

Historic City of St. George: Facts

Official title: Historic city of St. George with fortifications (Bermuda)
Cultural monument: Historic buildings including the Old State House (1620/21, the oldest stone building still standing), Globe Hotel (1699), Old Rectory (1699), Bridge House (1707, governor’s seat), Mitchell House (1731), Tucker House (early 18th century). Century. Now a museum), Whitehall (1815, temporarily the mayor’s residence); Evidence of the earliest English settlement in the New World; Fortifications including Fort St. Catherine (1612), Devonshire Redoubt (1621), Martello Tower (1820), Alexandra Battery (1840), St. David’s Battery (1910, the last fortress construction); Examples of the development of English military architecture over three centuries
Continent: Europe
Country: Great Britain
Location: St. George, on the northernmost Bermuda island
Appointment: 2000
Meaning: Outstanding example of one of the first English colonial cities in the New World

Historic City of St. George: History

1503 Discovery of Bermuda by the Spaniard Juan de Bermudez
1612 Founding of St. George by 60 English settlers; Construction of St. Peter’s Church
1614 Bermuda becomes an English colony
1693 Construction boom in St. George due to state land allocation
1796-1864 Eight yellow fever epidemics in St. George
1812 War between England and the USA over Canada; strategic importance of Bermuda for England
1834 abolition of slavery
1874 Start of construction of the “unfinished” church (originally replacing St. Peter’s Church)
1941 Parts of the island of Great Britain ceded to the USA for 99 years
1968 Self-management

Blaenavon industrial landscape (World Heritage)

According to franciscogardening, the industrial landscape of South Wales is a prime example of the early industrial revolution which, with the help of steam, ushered in Britain’s rise as an industrial power. The coal mines and blast furnaces form one of the world’s best-preserved ironworks complexes from the late 18th century. They show the technical progress in the manufacture of steel (Thomas process), but also the hardships and exertions of the workers.

Blaenavon industrial landscape: facts

Official title: Blaenavon industrial landscape
Cultural monument: Industrial landscape around Blaenavon with blast furnaces for the production of cast iron and later steel, ore and coal mines, network of railway lines and canals for material transport, workers’ housing and social facilities; the most important example of a landscape of the 19th century characterized by traditional heavy industry; South Wales was the world’s largest producer of coal and steel at the time
Continent: Europe
Country: Great Britain
Location: Blaenavon, northeast of Cardiff
Appointment: 2000
Meaning: Unique example of the economic and social structure of an industrial landscape from the 19th century.

Blaenavon industrial landscape: history

1325 First iron ore mine in Wales in the 16th century near Blaenavon
1789 Operation of the first two blast furnaces of the “Blaenavon Ironworks” for the production of cast iron (three more until 1810)
1804 Miners houses in Cwmavon
1805 Dedication of St Peter’s Church in Blaenavon
1812 Hills Tramway railway line in operation
1860 Sinking of the first shaft in the “Big Pit” coal mine
1878 Revolutionizing steel production through the “Thomas process” by Sydney Gilchrist Thomas
1894 Building of the “Blaenavons Workmens Hall” with contributions from the workers
around 1920 Largest population in Blaenavon with around 13,000
1938 Closure of the last blast furnace
1980 »Big Pit« closed
1983 Opening of the old “Big Pit” coal mine as a mining museum

Blaenavon industrial landscape