Turkey flag

Turkey is located in both Europe and Asia. The border runs through Istanbul, the only city in the world located in two continents. Politically, it counts as Europe, despite the fact that as much as 97 percent of the country is in Asia. Turkey is sometimes also included in the Middle East.

Capital: Ankara
Biggest city: Istanbul
State: republic
Language: Turkish
Religion: Islam
Surface: 780,580 km²
Population: 76.1 million (2013)
Population density: 98 residents per km²
Life expectancy: 72 years
Illiteracy: 13%
Currency: new Turkish lira (YTL)
GDP per capita: $ 13,100 (2010)
Time difference: +1 hour
Electricity: 220 V AC, 50Hz
National Day: October 29
Country area code: 90
2-Letter country abbreviation: TR (See more abbreviations on Abbreviationfinder)
Business: agriculture 50%, service sector 35%, industry 15%
Climate: temperate; mild, humid winters and hot, dry summers; dry in the inner parts

Turkey flag

Turkey is a popular holiday destination, offering a pleasant climate along the coasts of the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean. The country also has a magnificent nature and many cultural monuments. Warriors, philosophers and artists have spent their lives here for millennia.

The Republic of Turkey was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, after the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire after the First World War. Since then, Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West, while cultivating relations with the East. Turkey is one of the founding members of the UN, the Islamic Conference, the OECD and the OSCE. They have been members of the Council of Europe since 1949, and of NATO since 1952. Turkey has been negotiating membership with the EU since 2005, and has been an associate member of the EU since 1963. Turkey is also a member of the G20, which brings together the 20 largest economies in the world.

The geographical area of ​​present-day Turkey was an important historical area in ancient times and antiquity. The Anatolian Peninsula, also known as Asia Minor, which makes up most of present-day Turkey, is one of the oldest continuously inhabited areas in the world. The eastern parts have been made up of historic Armenia, also known as Western Armenia. The earliest Neolithic settlements such as Catalhöyük, Cayönü, Nevali Cori, Hacilar, Göbekli Tepe and Mersin are considered to be among the earliest human settlements in the world.

Turkey invaded Cyprus in 1974, occupying the northern third of the island. More than 160,000 Greek Cypriots were forced to leave the northern part of the island, while 43,000 Turkish Cypriots fled from the southern part. Nine years later, the Turkish Cypriots declared northern Cyprus an independent state. Only Turkey has recognized Northern Cyprus as an independent state.

Turkish cuisine is based on mutton, where goat milk yoghurt is also popular, often mixed with cucumber, garlic or mint. There is a long tradition of coffee drinking in Turkey, and the cafes are popular meeting places.

The James Bond films “Agent 007 Looks Red”, “Skyfall” and “The World Is Not Enough” are all largely shot in Turkey, and the city of Istanbul. The same goes for the films “Midnight Express” and “The Murder of the Orient Express” from 1974, where Ingrid Bergman won an Oscar for best supporting actress. The film is based on a book by Agatha Christie, where parts of the action take place in Istanbul.


The following objects in Turkey are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The year in which the item was added to the list is indicated in parentheses.

  • Göreme National Park with the rock dwellings in Cappadocia (1985)
  • Divriği Grand Mosque and Hospital (1985)
  • Historic city parties in Istanbul (1985)
  • Ruins of Hattusa (1986)
  • The burial site in Nemrud dağı (1987)
  • Ruins of Xanthos-Letoon (1988)
  • Ruins of Hierapolis-Pamukkale (1988)
  • The City of Safranbolu (1994)
  • Troy Archaeological Site (1998)
  • Selimiyemoskén, Edirne (2011)
  • Çatalhöyük, excavated settlement from the Neolithic (Late Stone Age) (2012)
  • Bursa and Cumalıkızık, early Ottoman settlements (2014)
  • Pergamon and its cultural landscape (2014)


Electricity and electrical outlets in Turkey

Voltage: 230 V

Frequency: 50 Hz

Type of plug: C, F

Need an adapter: No, you do not need an adapter.


Weather in Ankara

Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Christmas Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average temperature °C 10 11 13 16 20 25 28 27 25 20 15 12
Day °C 15 15 18 21 26 31 34 33 31 26 20 16
Night °C 5 6 7 10 14 18 21 21 18 14 9 7
Rain (mm) 180 130 80 80 20 10 10 10 10 90 180 210
Rainy days 11 10 9 8 6 3 1 1 2 6 8 12
Soltim / day 10 11 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 10 10

Turkey 2


Alanya is a city in southwestern Turkey with 134,396 residents (2007). It is located on a small peninsula at the foot of the Taurus Mountains in the province of Antalya, about 140 kilometers southeast of the city of Antalya on the south coast of Anatolia towards the Mediterranean.

Since the 1960s, it has grown significantly, mainly thanks to tourism, which has flourished since the 1980s. Every summer, the city is visited by large numbers of tourists, mainly from Scandinavia, Germany, Russia and the Netherlands. Alanya also has a larger port.


According to Countryaah, Ankara has been Turkey’s capital since 1923. The city consists of eight administrative districts with a total of 3,901,201 residents (2007), of which 3,763,591 residents live in the central town. Ankara is the country’s second largest city after Istanbul.

The city is the seat of the Turkish government and the National Assembly, as well as of all the ministries and the main political and bureaucratic bodies. The city also has an important academic role in Turkey, with eight universities. Among them are the three major prestigious universities Bilkent, ODTU and Hacettepe.

The city is also an important industrial and commercial center, with a growing number of new office skyscrapers and business centers that have grown up, especially in western Ankara. As a business center, however, the city is inferior to Istanbul.

Ankara’s history goes back to the Iron Age. Since then, the city has been under Hittite, Phrygian, Lydian, Persian, Macedonian, Celtic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk, Ottoman, and Turkish rule.


Antalya is a port city in southwestern Turkey with 872,000 residents (2007). The city was founded by King Attalos II of Pergamon around 150 BC. under the name Attalia. Year 133 BC the city became Roman and remained so until the 12th century when it was conquered by the Seljuks. Around the year 1420 it became Ottoman.


Istanbul is Turkey’s largest city, located on the border between Europe and Asia, and has just over 11.3 million residents (2007). 63.8 percent of the population lives on the European side and 36.2 percent on the Asian side. Istanbul is Turkey’s cultural and economic center, although Ankara is the capital.

Istanbul was founded by Greeks in the 600s BC. as Byzantium; as Constantinople was the later capital of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire from 330 until 1453, when it became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. When the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed in 1923, Ankara was chosen as the country’s capital instead. In 1926, the city changed its name from Constantinople to Istanbul.

The historic sites in the city were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985.


Izmir is a port city in western Turkey, on the Aegean Sea in the Mediterranean. The city is the country’s third largest city and administers nine districts with a total of 2,649,582 residents (2007).

The main industries are the port, which is one of the country’s most important, as well as industries and oil refineries. The city also has a NATO command center.

The city was founded by Aeolian Greeks in antiquity and is mentioned under the name Smyrna in the Book of Revelation. Polycarp suffered the martyrdom of Smyrna around 155. During the Middle Ages, the city belonged to the Byzantine Empire before it became the base of the Order of St. John. The Knights of St. John were expelled in 1402 by Timur Lenk, and in 1425 the Ottomans took control of the city. The city had a large Greek population, and according to the peace of Sèvres in 1920, the city and its surroundings would go to Greece.