The top politicians of the coalition parties hold important offices in the Conte cabinet: Luigi di Maio (M5S) is Minister of Labor and Industry, Matteo Salvini (L) is Minister of the Interior. In addition, both act as Contes’s deputy. President Mattarella exercised moderating influence on the appointment of cabinet posts that are important for European policy. On August 8, 2019, Interior Minister and Lega boss Salvini declared the coalition unable to work and the day after introduced a motion of no confidence in the non-party head of government G. Conte . Salvini pursued a formal end of the coalition with the five-star movement and called for new elections for October 2019. In the government crisis, a spontaneous, informal coalition was formed between the Partito Democratico and the five-star movement that wants to prevent new elections. Election observers predicted an election victory for the Lega, which could form a coalition with Berluscon’s Forza Italy. Prime Minister Conte submitted his resignation to President Mattarellaon August 20, 2019. He asked to be allowed to continue state affairs. The second government under Prime Minister Conte broke up in early 2021 in the dispute over EU aid to combat the Corona crisis. The former President of the ECB, M. Draghi , who was not party to the party, was sworn in on February 13, 2021 as the successor to Conte. For more articles about Italy and Europe, please follow Shoppingpicks.
Foreign policy: In terms of foreign policy, Italy had to overcome the consequences of the great power, expansion and occupation policies undertaken by fascism after the Second World War. In the peace treaty of Paris (February 10, 1947) it was essentially able to maintain its national territory. It lost the Dodecanese to Greece and Istria to Yugoslavia. The area of Trieste was declared a Free State and was divided in a de facto agreement between Italy and Yugoslavia in 1954, with the city remaining with Italy. Italy recognized the independence of Albania and Ethiopia, renounced its colonies, but received (1950) the trusteeship of the UN over Italian Somaliland (Somalia). Later on, Italian foreign policy sometimes tried to act as a mediator between the European and, in particular, the Arab Middle Eastern world, in the consciousness of a former Mediterranean and African colonial power. – The desire for autonomy of the German- and Ladin-speaking majority in South Tyrolled to tensions with Austria. The implementation of the agreement negotiated between the Austrian Foreign Minister Karl Gruber and the Italian Prime Minister De Gasperi stretched over decades, and it was not until 1992/93 that all disputed points were also clarified under international law.
In the course of the east-west conflict, Italy joined the western defense system; It became a member of NATO in 1949, and of the Western European Union in 1955. Italy took an active part in efforts to achieve economic and political integration in Europe, particularly under its first prime ministers. In 1949 it became a member of the Council of Europe, in 1952 of the European Coal and Steel Community, in 1958 (under the Treaty of Rome) of the EEC and EURATOM. In 1992 the Senate and the House of Representatives approved the Maastricht Treaty, and in 2008 also the Lisbon Treaty. In July 2012 the European Fiscal Compact and the Euro rescue package (ESM) were ratified. The Berlusconi government supported the American occupation policy in Iraq with troops – against strong reservations in the population – but the newly elected Prime Minister Prodi in May 2006 promptly withdrew the Italian associations. However, Italy’s engagement in Afghanistan, which had existed since 2001, was retained. In 2011, the country participated in the military intervention in Libya.
The number of boat refugees who have been trying to cross the Mediterranean Sea to reach the Italian coasts, some of which are unseaworthy, has risen sharply in recent years, and this poses major challenges for Italian politics. After more than 360 people were killed in the sinking of a refugee boat on October 3rd, 2013 off the island of Lampedusa, which developed into a central port of call for Mediterranean refugees, the Italian government initiated the sea rescue program “Mare Nostrum” to deal with such accidents avoid and improve border protection. By October 2014, over 100,000 refugees had been rescued. The EU border protection organization FRONTEX continued the operation with the financially poorer endowed program »Triton« from November 1, 2014, without a fundamental solution to the refugee problem being achieved. After a refugee boat sank off the Libyan coast on April 19, 2015, and at least 845 people lost their lives, a special EU summit on April 23, 2015 decided to increase the financial resources of »Triton«. Italy failed in June 2015 at an EU summit with the demand for a mandatory quota for EU countries to accept refugees. In 2015 over 150,000 refugees came to Italy, in 2016 it was around 181,000, in 2017 it was around 167,300. Italy failed in June 2015 at an EU summit with the demand for a mandatory quota for EU countries to accept refugees. In 2015 over 150,000 refugees came to Italy, in 2016 it was around 181,000, in 2017 it was around 167,300. Italy failed in June 2015 at an EU summit with the demand for a mandatory quota for EU countries to accept refugees. In 2015 over 150,000 refugees came to Italy, in 2016 it was around 181,000, in 2017 it was around 167,300.