Middle Latin Literature Part III

Middle Latin Literature 3

In the 12th century, Paris developed among other things. through Abelard and the collegiate school of Sankt Viktor to the focus of grammatical, philosophical and theological studies. Hugo von Sankt Viktor prepared basic knowledge in his manual “Didascalicon” and proclaimed an Augustinian-mystical doctrine with the Scot Richard; Adam composed novel sequences. At the school of Notre-Dame he taught inter alia. Petrus Lombardus, who became famous for his theological dogmatics “Sententiae”.…

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Italy Recent History Part III

Italy Recent History 3

Through the achievement of Cavour, whose sudden death in June 1861 meant a heavy loss for the country, Italy – unlike Germany – de facto became a parliamentary state with limited rights of the monarch and the responsibility of the ministers before the bicameral parliament. Because of the extreme census suffrage and the development of a clientelist dignitaries, the formation of modern parties came late. The unification of 1859/60 did…

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Middle Latin Literature Part II

Middle Latin Literature 2

10th and 11th centuries The political disintegration of the Carolingian Empire was reflected in a regionalization of literary creation, also in the restriction to local topics (saints’ lives, monastery annals). Later representative of the late Carolingian educational tradition in the 10th century was Regino von Prüm, who emerged as a canonist, music theorist and historian. Epics of salvation history following the late antique biblical poetry were written by Odo von…

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Italy Recent History Part II

Italy Recent History 2

The spokesmen of the Risorgimento, who were often forced to emigrate, represented very different conceptions: G. Mazzini, founder of Giovine Italia and later other national revolutionary organizations, strived for a unitary democratic republic unified by Italian forces; Carlo Cattaneo (* 1801, † 1869) preferred a republican federation; V. Gioberti, leader of the “Neoguelfen”, looked back on the Middle Ages and saw the church and papacy (and Pope Pius IX, who…

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Middle Latin Literature Part I

Middle Latin Literature 1

Middle Latin literature, the Latin literature of the European Middle Ages. It can be because of the smooth transitions to the previous Latin literature of late antiquity and the subsequent humanism time only approximately 500-1500 narrow and brought as a result of the Christian throughout the West used the Latin book Language (Middle Latin language) far more works and shapes emerged as the Roman Antiquity. Basics The Christian society of…

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Italy Recent History Part I

Italy Recent History 1

French rule and Congress of Vienna (1796-1815) The French Republic annexed Savoy and Nice in 1792, immediately after its proclamation. In 1796 General Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Lombardy, but in 1797 in the Peace of Campoformio left Austria the Republic of Venice east of the Adige. In the rest of Italy he founded the Cisalpine (1796/97: including Lombardy, western Veneto, papal Romagna), the Ligurian (1797: Republic of Genoa), the Roman (1798:…

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Neo-Latin Literature Part III

Neo-Latin Literature 3

The rest of Europe Not at the same time, but depending on ecclesiastical, political and cultural relationships, Italian humanism penetrated Europe, first in Hungary, where King Matthias I Corvinus (1458–90) founded the Bibliotheca Corviniana for his rich collection of ancient works in Buda and was in contact gathered around 1472 humanists with Ficino’s “Platonic Academy”, among others. the Italians A. Bonfini and Galeotto Marzio (* around 1427, † around 1494),…

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Italy History: the Era of Fascism (1922–1945) Part II

Italy History - the Era of Fascism 2

This “stato totalitario” could not encompass all of the powers that be in society; the Catholic Church in particular was able to maintain remnants of its influence (e.g. through its own youth organizations). The crown was discredited by many as a result of its cooperation with fascism and the scope of action of the prime minister and “Duce del Fascismo” had been expanded in several steps beyond the constitution at…

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Neo-Latin Literature Part II

Neo-Latin Literature 2

Italy Despite early approaches, a.o. in Padua, where A. Mussato wrote his tragedy “Eccerinis” based on the example of Seneca the Younger and was crowned a poet in 1315 as the first author since antiquity, Petrarch with his Latin work (e.g. Scipio epic “Africa”, “Bucolicum Carmen”, Roman biographies, collections of letters, “Fortuna” dialogue) as the actual founder of neo-Latin literature. Salutati drew talents such as the historian Bruni, the poet…

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Italy History: the Era of Fascism (1922–1945) Part I

Italy History - the Era of Fascism 1

After his appointment as Prime Minister, Mussolini first expanded his position of power against the actual and potential opposition (including the entry into force of an “Enabling Act” on December 3, 1922). While the socialists and communists (A. Gramsci) stood against Mussolini from the beginning, the bourgeois forces (including the PPI) initially took part in his government, since they saw the fascist movement as a useful force for calming the…

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