Spanish Languages 3

According to SUNGLASSESTRACKER.COM, the Latin deaf occlusive consonants, when they were in the intervocalic position, allowed themselves to be influenced by the sonority of the immediate vowels and became sonorized: vita, vida ; securu, seguro. The voiceless fricatives also became voiced, and so the f changed to the corresponding voiced v or b: profectu, provecho ; Stephanos, Esteban.

The intervocalic voiced stops tend to disappear: laudat, loa (but the d is preserved in other words, as in vadu, vado ; nidu, nest); ligare, liar ; legal, loyal (though to deny, deny, plague, llaga). The same happens with the sonorous fricatives: magistru, maestro ; sealu, sello ; aestivu, estio (butwash, wash ; nova, nueva ; bibere, beber).

When the consonant is long, its articulation is more resistant, and voicing does not occur (nor does it disappear). The long consonants are simplified, but without suffering the changes of the simple ones; so the deaf are not sonorized: cippu, cepo ; gutta, gota ; bucca, boca ; The ll and nn become palatal: caballu, caballo ; reed, caña.

Much more complicated is the development of groups of different consonants. Sometimes the consonants do not undergo any alteration, for example: serpent, serpent ; ulmu, elm ; but in most cases various changes occur: now the assimilation of one consonant to another, and so rs and ns become s: ursu, oso ; sensu, seso ; mb becomes m: lumbu, lom0 ; palumbu, palomo; now the vowel of one of the consonants: ct becomes yt and then ch: factu, feyto, hecho ; lectu, lecho ; ult gives uch: cultellu, cuchillo ; while alt gives ot: saltu, soto ; alteru, otro. In hecho, mucho, etc. we see that the yod resulting from the vocalization of a consonant makes the t palatalimmediately following; there are many examples of such a palatalization caused by yod: it is enough to cite the case of ly which has become j palatal in the ancient language and converted into velar in the modern: muliere, mujer ; filiu, hijo ; the case of ny become ñ: Hispania, Españq: seniore, señor ; that of dy became y: radiu, rayo ; etc.

The loss of voice proton and internal postonica, which we have made mention, gave rise to many new groups of consonants: legalitate, lealtad ; eleemos (y) na, limosna ; recuper (e) rare, recobrar. Sometimes, as in the examples cited, the new groups do not present special difficulties; only it should be noted that the consonants of the new consonant nexuses had already undergone an evolution as intervocalic before the loss of the vowel: so dominicu, domin (i) gu,Domingo. But furthermore, as the loss of the vowel often brought consonant sounds into contact that never matched in classical Latin, the new groups had to be simplified or adapted in ways very different from Romance phonetics; with assimilation: sem (i) ta, semda, senda ; with the vocalization: civ (i) tate, cibdad, ciudad ; also with metathesis: capit (u) la, cabildo; and often a third develops between the two consonant sounds to facilitate the transition: hum (e) ru, hombro.

In the final consonants the – m had vanished into archaic and popular Latin; all the others disappeared into the novel (caput, cabo ; sunt, con), except the -s (minus, menos ; multos, muchos); la – l and la – r are conserved in monosyllables and become internal in polysyllables, receiving the final consonant a support vowel. Other Latin consonants came to be found as final for the loss of the vowel – final e occurred after d, n, l, r, s and z: virtut (e), virtud ; pan (e), pan ; mar (e), mar.

Spanish is likewise a continuation of vulgar Latin as regards grammatical forms. The analytic tendency is maintained and continues in the use of the noun and the verb. The preposition as the most expressive and most precise element of the case ending eliminated this almost completely.

In the formation of nouns the analytic tendency to which we allude is manifested in the adoption of accented suffixes instead of other unaccented ones: the accent, by making the suffix stand out more, communicates greater expressive power to it. The same tendency is due to the fact that the derivatives from anomalous participas recomposed themselves, as if they proceeded from a regular participle, in order to make their relationship with the verb from which they derive and to whose action they refer more visible. So instead of factore da factus he called himself a doer, hacedor ; instead of dictore, decidor, etc.

As for numerals, the novel retained many classical synthetic forms such as undecim, once ; tredecim, trece ; but unmoved sedecim in the analytic Lorma diez y seis, and so in other cases.

The analytical form of the comparative used by vulgar Latin is the one used by the novel: instead of grandiores we said más grandes. The same for the superlative: grandissimus decomposed into muy grandes.

From the passive form of classical Latin, only the participle (amatus, amado) was saved with which, together with the auxiliary verb ser, the passive meaning soy amado was peripherally expressed. The future cantabo was replaced by the infinitive with the auxiliary haber: cantar he, cantaré. The perfect cantaverim and the infinite past cantavisse were replaced by haya cantado, haber cantado ; and yet with a periphrasis new nuances were created that did not exist in Latin, such as hubiese cantado,he cantado and cantaría, habría cantado.

Spanish Languages 3