We indicate the main ones:
a) Occlusive: two bilabial p and b, two dental t and d, and two velar k and g. In writing, the two signs b and v are used according to the etymology of the words, but they represent exactly the same sound; for k and g we use, according to the vowel that follows, ca and que, ga and gue. It should be noted that the voiced b, d, gthey are pronounced occlusive only after a nasal consonant and in absolute initial position (the d after l is also occlusive); otherwise these three consonants articulate fricatives and the limpness of the articulation comes to the point of complete loss of the consonant sound in the ending – ado, which is pronounced fluently – ao in Castile, even in the conversation of educated people.
b) Fricatives: as we have said, they are b, v, d, ga, gue between vowels or grouped with r or l. The other fricatives are: the f labiodental, the z interdental, the y palatal, the j velar, that is the fricative corresponding to the occlusive k.
c) Occlusive – fricatives or affricates are the palatal ch and the y after l or n.
d) Nasals: the m with labial occlusion, the n dental and the ñ palatal; however, there are other varieties that are not expressed by the alphabet such as the velar in angulo, the palatal in ancho, the labiodental in inferior and the labial in envidia.
and) Side: the the alveolar and The palatal.
f) Vibrating: two alveolar, the r with simple vibration of the tip of the tongue and the rr or r – initial with doubled vibration. When the r is final, a fricative manifold predominates instead of the vibrating one. In addition, the h is used in writing, which today has no value in pronunciation. We also use the x with the Latin value of cs when it is between vowels and of s before a consonant. An excellent description of Spanish sounds was given by T. Navarro (Manual de pronunciación española).
Latin element. – According to SPORTSQNA.COM, Spain was Romanized before the other Romance countries, except Italy. The two great centers of Romanization of the peninsula were Cartago Nova for Spain Hither and Corduba for Spain. When Lucanus, Martial and Seneca were writing, no other region of the empire could give as much to Latin culture as Spain. Here are the most significant changes that Latin underwent in Spain to reach the Spanish now spoken.
a) Accented vowels. The open e and o of vulgar Latin, that is ě ae and ŏ of classical Latin, were diphthongized in ié and ué: terra, tierra ; bonum, bueno. The diphthong ié is reduced to i especially in the vicinity of a palatal sound, and ué is reduced to é under the influence of a near labial sound: saeculu, formerly sieglo, now siglo ; – ĕllu: castiello, now castillo ; silla (saddle), etc. Even before s + cons. and in hiatus: nispero, my, etc.; frontem, formerly fuente, now frente ; fleco, culebra. The closed e and o of vulgar Latin, i.e. ē, ĭ, oe and ü, ŭ of the classic, remain e and o: alienum, ajeno; pilu, hair ; foedu, feo ; appointments, nombre. A following palatal yod (an i or an e in hiatus with another vowel) forces the e and the o to close in i and u: cereu, cirio ; cuneu, cuño ; tiña ; and the same effect results from the yod born from the vocalization of a consonant grouped with t which produces ch: multu, mucho; auscultat, escucha. The a, i and u remain: matrem, mother ; scriptum, escrito ; acutum, agudo. The a followed by yod ends in e: laicum, lego ; basium, beso ; lacte, leche. In the same way the a followed by w closes in o: cause,what ; taurum, bull.
Note that w may come from the vocalization of a grouped l: alterum, otro ; lime, coz.
b) Unstressed vowels. – The a, ī, ū and ę and ǫ generally evolve as when they are stressed, resulting in a, i, u and e, o, but ę and ǫ never produce ie and ue as when they are stressed, but e e or. There is also another big difference between stressed and unstressed vowels, and that is that they often disappear.
c) Initial vowels. – They are the most resistant and are generally known to retain after having undergone the aforementioned modifications. Examples: of a: capistrum, cabestro ; altarium, otero ; of ẹ and ę: piscare, pescar ; seniorem, señor ; of ọ and ǫ: nominate, nombrar ; pride, soberbia ; corticea, corteza, etc. But there is no lack of other kinds of changes: navaja (novacula), redondo, hermoso, etc.
d) Internal proton vowels. – The to remain (paradisu, paraiso), but the others disappear as a general rule: place, colgar: misculare, mezclar. In very many cases the proton is conserved for many different causes, especially the influence of the learned language.
e) Internal postal vowels. – They evolve like the protons, ie the a remains and the others disappear as a rule: orphanu, huérfano ; comite, conde ; littera, letra.
f) Final vowels. – Of the five vowels tone generally appear only three, a, e, o, because the i and u become pure e and o: veni, vine, illis, lès, as patrem, father ; fructus, frutos, as tempus, tiempos.
g) Consonants. – In the development of the consonants it should be noted that in general the initial remain unaltered: digitu, dedo ; gallicu, galgo. The fricatives suffer various alterations and sometimes come to the point of disappearance; so the f- is now replaced by h muta: fabulare, hablar ; factum, hecho ; instead it is preserved in front of the diphthong ue (forte, fuerte) and in some words subject to different influences: fund, signatures, fiel, etc. It seems that the disappearance of f – which passes through the aspirate, is due to ethnic (Iberian) reasons. The j or ge is also lost in front of an unstressed palatal vowel (e, i): germanu, hermano ; januariu, enero ; gingiva, Encia ; also jungere, uncir ; but in other cases it is preserved with the sound y or j: generu, yerno ; jocu, juego. Even the grouped initial consonants are generally conserved, less, especially, in the deaf consonant nexus with l which resolves into ll -: planu, llano ; clamare, llamar.