Independence Day: 06/12/1990
Head of state: Wladimir Putin
Head of government: Mikhail Mishustin
Political system: Presidential Democracy
Democracy Status Index (BTI): Rank 85 (out of 137), 2020
Corruption Index (CPI): Rank 137 (out of 180), 2019
Russia is a presidential democracy with a federal state structure. The President has extensive executive powers, particularly in foreign and security policy. On the proposal of the State Duma, he appoints and dismisses the head of the government, the deputy chairmen and the ministers.
The bicameral parliament consists of the State Duma and the Federation Council. The Federation is called “upper chamber Parliament” the constitutional body, which represents the federation subjects at the federal level. It consists of 178 delegates: Each federal subject sends one representative each from the executive and legislative branches to the Federation Council. The State Duma with 450 seats will be for five years chosen. There is a five percent clause.
Important parties are the pro-government United Russia (Jedinaja Rossija) with 1.9 million members and Just Russia (Spravedlivaja Rossija) with 400,000 members, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (KPRF) with 150,000 members, which is the successor party to the former CP; the Liberal Democratic Party (LDPR) with 185,000 members, which is populist and anti-liberal; the growth party (Partija Rosta), is committed to neoliberalism; Yabloko, democratic-liberal party with 55,000 members, the Patriots of Russia (Patrioty Rossii), left-centric, with 85,000 members, the Party of People’s Freedom (PARNAS), democratic-liberal party with 58,000 members.
According to commit4fitness, Russia is a federation made up of 85 federal subjects (including the internationally controversial classification of the Republic of Crimea and the city of federal rank Sevastopol) with varying degrees of autonomy. The federal subjects (republics, autonomous territories, autonomous counties, territories, regions and federal cities) each have their own legislative and executive branches. The governors of the federal subjects are appointed by the President on the proposal of the strongest parliamentary group in the regional parliaments. The president selects the governor from a list of three proposed candidates.
By presidential decree of July 2000, the first seven, as of February 2010 eight federation districts (Northwest Russia, Central Russia, South Russia, North Caucasus, Volga, Urals, Siberia, Far East) were created, each of which is headed by an authorized representative of the President. The State Council of Governors meets under the leadership of the President and makes recommendations to the Executive on current political issues and legislative projects. After the incorporation of the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol into the Russian Federation, the ninth Crimean Federal District established.
The consistent recentralization of the state administration has led to political and economic dependence of the regions on the center since 2000. These tendencies became clear with the abolition of the direct election of the governors in the regions and the renewed subordination of the regional and local authorities to the federal center (“ executive power vertical ”).
The constitution was adopted in a referendum on December 12, 1993 with 58.4% of the votes. It guarantees human and civil rights. The principle of the separation of powers is anchored in the constitution, but the president has a wealth of power that allows him to rule largely independently. He is the commander in chief of the armed forces, is responsible for domestic and foreign policy and can block parliamentary bills. The government is subordinate to the President, who appoints the Prime Minister with the approval of the State Duma. The parliament – the State Duma and the Federation Council – is very limited in its influence.
Law and order
The highest legal instance in Russia is the Supreme Court, and there is also a Supreme Arbitration Court. The judges of these courts are appointed by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the President. In 2003 jury courts started their work.
The commitment to formally abolishing the death penalty entered into when Russia joined the Council of Europe in 1996 has not been fulfilled. However, a 1999 moratorium suspended the execution of the death penalty.