According to the law, emergency treatment in state clinics is generally free of charge, but the state clinics often do not meet the German standard in terms of equipment. In Moscow, St. Petersburg and some other large cities there are some, mostly private hospitals, which also meet higher demands in terms of accommodation and technical and professional equipment. As a rule, knowledge of Russian is required in medical care facilities. Help can be called on the emergency telephone number 03.
The pharmacies in the big cities have a good range of products, and important standard drugs are available. It is advisable to take out a foreign health and air ambulance insurance. The travel medical information service recommends vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria and hepatitis A, for long-term stays over four weeks or special exposure also hepatitis B, rabies and TBE.
The right to free basic health care for all citizens is enshrined in the constitution. Russia has a comparatively high number of doctors and hospitals per capita in an international comparison, but the health system from the Soviet era remains ineffective. According to hyperrestaurant, healthcare was hit hard by the economic decline in Russia in the 1990’s. The poor condition of medical facilities, a lack of medicines and insufficient funding are the main problems facing the health system. Despite the gradual increase in fees, the incomes of doctors and medical staff are still low. This has led to a system of actual co-payment by the patient, even though medical treatment is actually free of charge.
The low life expectancy (men 65 years, women 76 years), which mainly affects the male part of the population, is caused by the relatively high mortality rate as a result of the unhealthy lifestyle, alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking, as well as traffic accidents and suicide. At 56.7%, various heart diseases are the most common cause of death, and cancer is also very common. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and particularly HIV / AIDS continue to spread. Of which particularly affected are drug addicts and prison inmates.
The health system is being modernized as part of the “National Projects”, which are financed from raw material income. For example, 7 federal centers with top medical technology and 12 perinatal centers were established across the country, the transport and care of accident victims improved, and prevention and support programs for mothers and children developed. The salaries for medical staff will be gradually increased and government funds will be invested in modernizing existing clinics. Since 2002 is life expectancy steadily increased in Russia. The national health care project envisages that by the end of 2024 the life expectancy of the Russian population will increase further to 78 years. The mortality rate for cardiovascular diseases is to be reduced by a third and cancer by 10 percent. To achieve these goals, flowing by 2024 about 17 billion euros in the expansion and modernization of health care, in addition to the health expenditure of about 40 billion euros per year.
The social security system is supported by four institutions: the Pension Fund, the Social Insurance Fund, the Fund for Compulsory Health Insurance and the State Employment Fund. The pension fund established in 1992 pays disability and old age pensions. Retirement age is reached at sixty for men and fifty-five for women. Despite considerable wage increases in the 2000’s, the general wage level is too low to be able to finance pensions solely through pay-as-you-go or funded procedures: the subsidies from the state pension fund are increasing. A new pension reform has been discussed again and again since 2012.
On the day of the opening of the soccer World Cup, the government introduced a bill into parliament that will gradually raise the retirement age for women from 55 to 63 today and for men from 60 to 65 at present by 2034. The government’s plans met with protest: more than 2.5 million people signed a petition against it, and demonstrations against the planned pension reform are taking place in numerous cities. President Putin made a televised address in August in response to the protests, but at the same time it was a moderation announces: The retirement age for women will increase by five instead of eight years; Women with three or more children can also retire earlier.
The Social Insurance Fund finances maternity benefit (up to 18 weeks), child benefit and sickness benefit. The health insurance system comprises a guaranteed minimum state provision, compulsory insurance and voluntary supplementary insurance. Unemployment benefit is paid out by the state employment fund (for a maximum of one year). All social benefits are at a low level.