The natural population development has been characterized by low birth rates and rising death rates since the end of the 1980’s. The lower fertility rate and the persistently high death rate associated with inadequate medical care, poor nutrition, alcoholism and environmental pollution were the causes of the demographic crisis. The decline has affected the ethnically Russian population more than most non-Russian ethnic groups. This means that the balance between the majority population and minorities can shift slightly in the medium term.
The 2010 census showed that compared to 2002 the population had decreased by another 2.3 million to 142.9 million. The average population density was only 8.4 residents / km². In terms of population distribution in the country, the contrasts between a more densely populated west or south and the large, sparsely populated regions of the east or north are very clear.
In 2006, Putin identified the demographic crisis as the worst problem facing modern Russia and launched a campaign to increase the birth rate and lower the death rate. Several national programs are designed to help increase the birth rate. Since 2007, parents have received a one-off state aid of 250,000 rubles (the equivalent of around 7100 euros) from their second newborn child. As a result, in the first half of 2007 it was possible to bring the birth rate to the highest level since the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Since 2006/07, extensive efforts have contributed to an increase in the number of births and a significant reduction in mortality. Significant successes have been achieved: the number of newborns increased by 21.2% between 2007 and 2012, and mortality decreased by 11.2%. If the expected lifespan in newborns (boys and girls) was less than 67 in 2006, it was 72 years in 2016. In 2018, life expectancy for women was 77.6 years and life expectancy for men was 66.9 years. Over the past decade, deaths from non-natural causes decreased by about 40%. In 2020 the average population density is 8.9 residents / km², the number of residents has risen to 145.7.
The biggest demographic problem remains the halving of the age group of 18 year olds. This will have a decisive impact on the labor market, pension burden, education system and the military.
According to franciscogardening, Russia is the second most important immigration country in the world. According to United Nations estimates, there were around 11.6 million immigrants in Russia in 2019, which is 8% of the population. The countries of origin are mainly the former Soviet republics of Central Asia and the Caucasus, but also Africa and Asia to an increasing extent. Some of the immigrants are the descendants of Russians who settled in other republics during the Soviet era and are now largely returning to Russia with their families. You could see the churn losses compensate for that resulted from the relocation of Russian Germans to Germany and Jews to Central Europe, North America or Israel.
In order to compensate for the decline in population that has been going on for years, Russia is dependent on immigration for a short time. At the beginning of 2015, the legal situation on labor migration was changed. The new regulations primarily affect citizens of member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as well as highly qualified foreign specialists. While the amendment to the law poses new bureaucratic challenges for migrant workers and access to the Russian labor market is likely to be more difficult despite the quota being lifted, the new regulations are intended to simplify the influx of highly qualified workers. The issuance of residence and work permits has become significant for highly skilled, high-income workers eased and accelerated. The immigration quotas have been abolished for the highly qualified.
Immigration from the Caucasian and Central Asian states often leads to problems with the settlement of migrants and with job creation. Despite its significant numbers of migrants, Russia lacks a coherent integration policy. Interethnic conflicts and xenophobia are increasing.
The international migration is from the internal migration exceeded. There is ongoing migration from the areas of the far north, which were developed at high cost in the Soviet era.
Women traditionally make up the majority of the population in Russia. The female population has been between 53 and 55% of the total population since the 1920’s. Equality between men and women is guaranteed in the constitution. Women are particularly affected by the transformation processes and the transition to a market economy. This is evidenced by the significant decline in the birth rate in the 1990’s.
The changes in the living conditions of women also affect the labor market, because the risk of absenteeism due to pregnancy, parental leave and caring for relatives often means that women are less likely to be hired than men despite better training. The significantly lower average income of women means lower pensions for older women, who are therefore at high risk of old-age poverty. The political sphere in Russia is dominated by men. Around 40% of women work in general management areas and another 20% at management level. They mainly work in these professions in media companies and PR agencies, but also in banks, stock exchanges, construction industries, etc.
Russia is a multinational state in which representatives of more than 160 peoples live. The Russians make up the majority of the population with 79.8%. Larger minorities are the Tatars (4.0%), the Ukrainians (2.2%), the Armenians (1.9%), the Chuvashes (1.5%), the Bashkirs (1.4%) and the Chechens (0.9%), the Germans (0.8%), the Belarusians and Mordvins (0.6% each), Udmurten (0.4%), Buryats (0.3%) and others.
In many cases, the interdependence between the non-Russian and Russian sections of the population through mixed marriages and interethnic communication is quite high, as is the degree of Russification of the non-Russian sections of the population. Only a few national territorial units, such as Chechnya, Dagestan, Chuvashia and Tuva, are more strongly influenced by the eponymous ethnos.