Netherlands flag

Netherlands borders the North Sea, Belgium and Germany. The Kingdom of the Netherlands also includes the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba in the Caribbean. The capital of the Netherlands is Amsterdam, but the government and parliament are based in The Hague, where the monarch also resides. Official language is Dutch.

Capital: Amsterdam
Biggest city: Amsterdam
State: monarchy within the EU
Language: Dutch
Religion: Christianity
Surface: 41 526 km²
Population: 16.8 million (2013)
Population density: 403 residents per km²
Life expectancy: 79 years
Illiteracy: 1%
Currency: euro (EUR)
1 euro = 9.76 kr
GDP per capita: $ 40,600 (2010)
Time difference: +0 hours
Electricity: 220 V AC, 50Hz
National Day: April 30th
Country area code: 31
2-Letter country abbreviation: NL (See more abbreviations on Abbreviationfinder)
Business: service sector 71%, industry 26%, agriculture 3%
Climate: temperate; cold winters and mild summers

Netherlands flag

The Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with more than 400 residents per square kilometer. It is the most densely populated country in Europe (microstates excluded). The Netherlands is often called Holland, which is really only the name of a part of the country. However, the name Holland is often used, as well as Dutch for the language and as an adjective in everyday contexts.

The Netherlands has a history of many prominent painters. During the 0’s was the age of the “Dutch champions”, such as Rembrandt van Rijn, Johannes Vermeer, Jan Steen and many others. Famous Dutch painters of the 19th and 20th centuries include Vincent van Gogh and Piet Mondriaan.

In addition to tulips, clogs and windmills, the Dutch are also known as a tolerant people. The liberal Dutch view of drugs, prostitution, homosexual marriage and euthanasia has received international attention; Amsterdam is seen by many as a city where “everything is allowed”. Well-known Dutch food specialties include raw herring, smoked eel and green pea soup.


The following objects in the Netherlands are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The year in which the item was added to the list is indicated in parentheses.

  • Schokland Archaeological Site (1995)
  • The defense facility around Amsterdam (1996)
  • Windmills and pumping stations in the Kinderdijk-Elshout area (1997)
  • Wouda’s steam pump station (1998)
  • The drained area at Beemster (1999)
  • Rietveld ?? Schröderhuset in Utrecht (2000)
  • Wadden Sea (2009)
  • Amsterdam Canal System (2010)
  • Van Nelle factories, Rotterdam (2014)


Electricity and electrical outlets in the Netherlands

Voltage: 230 V

Frequency: 50 Hz

Type of plug: C, F

Need an adapter: No, you do not need an adapter.


Weather in Amsterdam

Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Christmas Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average temperature °C 7 6 6 9 11 14 17 18 17 15 12 9
Day °C 5 8 9 12 17 19 21 21 18 15 9 6
Night °C 1 0 3 4 8 11 13 13 11 8 4 3
Rain (mm) 69 39 78 36 45 69 63 54 75 84 90 69
Rainy days 8 11 9 12 12 9 12 11 10 9 7 7
Soltim / day 3 5 6 10 10 11 10 8 7 6 3 3

Netherlands 2


According to Countryaah, Amsterdam is the largest city in the Netherlands, the official capital, and is located in the province of Noord-Holland. The city has 1.4 million residents. According to the annual Cost of Living Survey, Amsterdam ranks 25th in terms of the most expensive cities to live in.

The city has over 50 museums and the most famous are the Rijksmuseum, the van Gogh Museum, the Rembrandt Museum and the Anne Frank House. Furthermore, the city is known for all its canals and the many bicycles that the Dutch use to transport themselves. Amsterdam has the largest old town of all European capitals, where there are many canals and small streets.

Amsterdam is considered the most liberal city in the world. In no other city is it as open when it comes to light drugs, sex and prostitution. The city’s most famous district is the Red-light district, known to the Dutch as the wall (s). In Amsterdam, there are about 230 so-called coffee shops, a kind of café where, among other things, cannabis is served, which is tolerated in the Netherlands under certain circumstances. Amsterdam also has an intense gay culture with two large areas with many clubs and bars for gays. The city is also known for its rich cycling culture; there are more than 700,000 bicycles in the city.

The Hague

The Hague is the administrative capital of the Netherlands. The city is located in the southwestern part of the Netherlands in the province of Zuid-Holland, in which it is also the regional center. The city has 700,000 residents (2004) and is the third largest in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

The Hague houses the governing bodies Eerste Kamer (“the first chamber”), or the Senate and Tweede Kamer (“second chamber”). These are the upper and lower instances that form the Dutch parliament. The Dutch queen Beatrix also lives and works in The Hague. All foreign embassies and government ministries, as well as the Supreme Court and many lobby organizations are located in the city. According to the Dutch constitution, however, Amsterdam is the official capital of the country.

The older parts of the city usually have characteristic wide and long streets. The buildings are usually low-rise buildings (no more than three storeys) and these buildings are quite elegant. The city has been planned more spaciously than other Dutch cities. There are almost no canals at all in The Hague, as most of them were drained in the late 19th century.

The former Dutch colony of the Dutch East Indies (“Nederlands-Indië”, today Indonesia) has left many traces in The Hague. Many streets are named after places in the Dutch East Indies and there are a large number of Dutch-Indonesian communities. After the loss of the Dutch colonies in 1949, many people call The Hague “the window to” India “”.


Rotterdam is after Amsterdam the largest city in the Netherlands and is of great importance in its capacity as the world’s second largest port, after Shanghai. The city is located two meters below sea level. Together with Amsterdam and The Hague, Rotterdam is a cultural center in the Netherlands with a university, several polytechnics, a music academy and an art academy. The city is known throughout the world for its unique architecture. The city has 1.1 million residents (2006).