According to the census conducted in 2011, almost half of the residents are Montenegrins. There are several minorities in the country, of which the Serbs are the largest group, followed by Bosnians, Albanians and Roma with others. In mid-2016, the population was estimated to be about 622,000.
In connection with the wars in ex-Yugoslavia in the 1990s, many residents set out to escape military service, financial difficulties and an uncertain future. At the same time, Montenegro received a large number of refugees – most of which amounted to 160,000 in 1999, a huge number in small Montenegro. Most of these have since returned home or moved to a third country.
- COUNTRYAAH.COM: Key populations estimated size and data of Montenegro, including population density of how many people per square mile. Also included are facts for population and language.
Remaining in Montenegro in 2015, there were a few thousand refugees, most of them Roma from Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Roma often lack identity documents and have difficulty obtaining citizenship or residence permits. In addition, most of them lack work and decent housing, and have poor access to healthcare, schools and other community services.
According to the 2007 Constitution, the official language of Montenegro is Montenegrin, a South Slavic language. Both the Cyrillic alphabet, once introduced by the Orthodox Church, and Latin script are used and considered equivalent. It was in connection with the Montenegrin independence struggle in the 21st century, who increasingly vigorously claimed that Montenegrin was a separate, separate Serbian language. The language of Montenegro is in the pronunciation many times closer to Croatian than Serbian as it is spoken in Serbia. Basically, however, everything is the same language, with local differences (what in Yugoslavian times were called Serbo-Croatian). Albanian, which is written in Latin, is the most important minority language.
Montenegrin pronunciation guide
C = ts; Ć = tj; Č = tsch; Dž = about dzj; Đ đ = dj; G and K = always hard pronunciation as in good cake; Š = sch; Z = toning z; Ž = toning zj
FACTS – POPULATION AND LANGUAGE
Montenegrins 45%, Serbs 29%, Bosnians 9%, Albanians 5%, the rest 12% (Census 2011)
Number of residents
622 471 (2017)
Number of residents per square kilometer
Percentage of residents in the cities
66.5 percent (2017)
Nativity / birth
11.4 per 1000 residents (2016)
Mortality / mortality
9.9 per 1000 residents (2016)
0.0 percent (2017)
1.7 number of births per woman (2016)
Percentage of women
50.7 percent (2017)
77 years (2016)
Life expectancy for women
79 years (2016)
Life expectancy for men
75 years (2016)
Montenegrin is officially language 1
- Also Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian, Croatian and Romani are spoken
The EU application is submitted
Montenegro formally applies for membership in the EU.
Kosovo is recognized
Together with Macedonia, Montenegro recognizes Kosovo’s independence, which annoys Serbia and for a period of time relations between Serbia and Montenegro are on a low.
The president is re-elected
Filip Vujanović, from the DPS just like the prime minister, is re-elected president with just over half the votes.
New Prime Minister takes office
Milo Đukanović returns to the Prime Minister’s post since Željko Šturanović resigned for health reasons.