London History

The area of ​​London was already settled in the Mesolithic (finds on the cathedral hill of Saint Paul’s; other finds here from the Bronze Age). The Roman Londinium was founded after the invasion of Britain by Emperor Claudius in AD 43 at the same time as the construction of the first bridge (about 500 m downstream of today’s London Bridge). It quickly developed into a naval and customs station and was soon rebuilt (on Cathedral Hill and Cornhill) after its destruction during the uprising of the native British against the Roman occupation (AD 61 under the leadership of Boudiccas). Under Septimius Severus (193–211) became the important trading center and transport hub, fortified capital of the Roman province of Britannia superior, and since Diocletian (284–305) London was the capital of one of the four late Roman British provinces. After the departure of the Romans at the beginning of the 5th century and during the gradual conquest of England by Angles and Saxons, London was insignificant for a long time. The founding of the first Saint Paul’s Cathedral under King Aethelberht of Kent in 604 is the earliest event reported from London since the Romans withdrew. Among the Anglo-Saxon kings, Alfred the Great was a particular sponsor (871–899) the city. He saved them from destruction by the Danes in 883, drove them out and named London – alongside Winchester – the second capital of his empire. It was not until the 11th century that London fully took on the role of capital.

In 1066, after the Battle of Hastings, the Norman Duke William the Conqueror succeeded him and was the first king to be crowned at Westminster Abbey; he confirmed the special rights of the city. The municipal institutions developed. In 1192 the first mayor took office; the right to his annual election was given to the Londoners under John I. (1199-1216). The City Council (Common Council) is first reliably attested to in 1332. The fortunes of the city were in the hands of an upper class of merchants (“merchant adventurers”) who soon dominated most of English foreign trade. The economic rise accelerated in the 16th century with the establishment of the first large trading companies and the opening of the commodity exchange (between 1566 and 1570). London developed into one of the largest and richest cities in Europe with a surge in population (1530: about 50,000 residents, 1600: between 200,000 and 250,000 residents), which was only caused by the two great catastrophes of the 17th century (75,000 dead by the Pest 1664/65, destruction of four fifths of the city by the great fire of 1666) was inhibited.

A distinction was made between London proper and Westminster, which remained without self-government, seat of the Crown and Parliament, but which grew together with London over time. However, the city always represented a factor in English politics that was independent of the king. Under Elizabeth I, the Tower ceased to be a royal residence. The period of cooperation with the Tudors followed in the 17th century when the city took sides in parliament. Anti-royal politics in the Civil War changed in 1660 when London sponsored the Restoration of the Stuarts and received new assurances in return. An attempt by Charles II to revoke the rights of the city in 1683 ultimately led to the support of William of Orange.

According to thesciencetutor, with the rise of Great Britain to a world power, London became a center of world trade and international money transactions. During the First World War, the port and armaments factories were the target of German air raids, in the Second World War large parts of the city were destroyed by German aerial bombs and rockets (35% of the city, 90 churches; 30,000 dead).

On July 7, 2005, four bomb attacks in quick succession on subways and a bus occurred in the city, to which the Islamist terror network al-Qaeda claimed responsibility (56 dead, around 700 seriously injured; another series of attacks on July 21, 2005). without sacrifice).

In 2012, the Summer Olympics took place in London (venue in 1908 and 1948).

London History

London Philharmonic Orchestra

London Philharmonic [ l ʌ ndən fil ɑ ː m ɔ n ɪ k ɔ ː k ɪ strə], British symphony orchestra.

Short story: The London Philharmonic Orchestra was founded in 1932 (and directed until 1940) by T. Beecham and has been self-governing since 1939. 1940-48 it was under the direction of guest conductors, then by elected chief conductor, who has been W. Jurowski since 2007. Former important leaders included E. A. van Beinum (1948-50), A. Boult (1950-57), W. Steinberg (1958-60), J. Pritchard (1962-67), B. Haitink (1967-79), G. Solti (1979 –83), K. Tennstedt (1983–87, since then honorary conductor), F. Welser-Möst (1990–96) and K. Masur (2000-07). The London Philharmonic Orchestra has hosted the Glyndebourne Festival Opera every year since 1964, in 1973 it was the first Western European orchestra to travel to China, and since 2005 it has released recordings on its own record label.

Repertoire: In addition to cultivating the classical-romantic repertoire, the orchestra is also active across borders in the pop area. So it brought, among other things. Albums with cover versions of Pink Floyd, Led Zeppelin and The Who and participated on the album “corea.concerto” by C. Corea; it also played the soundtracks, among others. to the films “Lawrence of Arabia” (1962), “The Mission” (1986) and the trilogy “Lord of the Rings”. The London Philharmonic Choir, founded in 1947, is affiliated with the orchestra.