In Mannerism, the expressive possibilities already laid out in the high renaissance treasure trove of forms in addition to the classical norm unfolded into diverse, sometimes contradicting currents. The evaluation of the disegno as a creative principle opened the way to artistic subjectivism, aestheticism and intellectualism. The virtuoso handling of the achievements of the High Renaissance up to the deliberate break with the rules of proportion and perspective sometimes led to ecstatic exaggerations in movement and expression and a dynamic delimitation of the spatial. The art of Mannerism is not to be interpreted simply as the arbitrary destruction of the Renaissance, but the Mannerist design elements are signs of a new age, reflect the upheavals of the worldview through voyages of discovery, Copernicus) and religious renewal (Reformation). For more articles about Italy and Europe, please follow Physicscat.
Architecture: In architecture, Michelangelo’s Biblioteca Laurenziana in Florence (1524 ff.) Shows mannerist features of idiosyncratic tension through the arrangement of the sculptural structural elements, which do not understand their load-bearing function, but rather conceal them and dissolve the wall as a fixed space boundary. A prime example of the use of antiquing forms in an anti-classical sense is the Palazzo del Tè in Mantua by Giulio Romano (1525–35). In Florence, B. Ammanati broke open the solid rustic facade of the Renaissance in the sense of a three-dimensional formation (Palazzo Pitti, garden side, 1560 ff.), Vasari created a long, narrow suite of great depths for the Uffizi Gallery (1560 ff.). The design for Il Gesù in Rome by Vignola (1568, completed by Giacomo Della Porta 1571–73), which connected a longitudinal space with a light dome, gained importance for the church building of the Counter-Reformation; the synthesis of the nave (longitudinal building) and dome room (central building) was to become a central theme of the baroque. A. Palladio is one of the outstanding architects of the 16th century. Based on a thorough knowledge of antiquity, he endeavored to find an ideal architecture, which he realized in the villa “La Rotonda” near Vicenza (1565–70). His classicism had a great influence on European architecture in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Sculpture: Michelangelo’s sculptures for the Medici Chapel of San Lorenzo in Florence mark the beginning of the Mannerist style epoch, which enter into a dynamic connection with the architecture; The figures, antithetically placed on sarcophagi, are world famous day and night as well as morning and evening in their intense physicality. They are unfinished like the other slaves for the Julius tomb. The sculpture of the 16th century is largely under the influence of Michelangelo. by B. Cellinithe tension of his characters translated into Prized. Giambologna , who immigrated from the north – important mediator between Michelangelo and G. L. Bernini - Developed in the Figura serpentinata artfully interlaced all-round view of the free figure. The viewer is denied a fixed point of view.
Painting: Here, too, the essential prerequisites lie in the powerful dynamism of Michelangelo, who painted the vision of the Last Judgment in a circular composition in the Sistine Chapel in 1535–41, but also in the later works of Raphael and Titian. The starting point in Emilia-Romagna is the subtly refined style of Correggio, whose dome fresco of the Cathedral of Parma (1526–30) pulls the viewer into the height of the infinite space by means of astonishing foreshortening and illusionistic architectural views: art and real space are merged. It is from him that Parmigianino becomeswith its elongated proportions and unreal spatial constructions, it is a typical representative of Mannerism. One of Correggio’s pupils was Barocci, who was referred to as the “father of baroque painting”. In Venice, Tintoretto combined these tendencies of perspective illusionism with Titian’s free conception of color, while Paolo Veronese revived the perspective principles of the Quattrocento in festive productions. In Florence, among other things, Andrea del Sarto on the initiators; The highlights were the works of Pontormo, which were illuminated by a peculiarly immaterial color. Bronzino distinguished himself from a. as an excellent portraitist. The new style quickly spread internationally through the painters Rosso Fiorentino and Primaticcio, who worked in Fontainebleau.