The new beginning after the end of the war was stylistically dominated by neorealism. This direction, which practiced the relentless reproduction of reality, was prepared by A. Moravia’s novel “Gli indifferenti” (1929) and became massively effective through its connection with the medium of film (important representatives in literature including L. Bartolini , F. Jovine , A. Moravia, V. Pratolini , N. Ginzburg ). In the post-war period the authors tried to overcome the cultural autarchy of the fascist era, v. a. by processing French and American models. Dominant figures of literary life were E. Vittorini and C. Pavese, in the drama U. Betti and D. Fabbri, who presented moral problems from a Catholic point of view. Italian poetry also went through a neorealistic phase, among others. with R. Scotellaro , who comes from Basilicata(“È fatto giorno”, published posthumously in 1954, but containing poems since 1940; German “The day has dawned”).
At the beginning of the 1950s, the neo-realistic perspective lost its importance. The work I. Calvino stands for new trends in Italian literature: the breaking up of linear structures, the inclusion of fantastic and surreal elements. I. Calvino took this direction for the first time in 1952 with “Il visconte dimezzato” (German: “The divided burgrave”), then in the novels “Il barone rampante” (1957; German “The baron on the trees”) and “Il cavaliere inesistente «(1959; German» The nonexistent knight «). Something similar can be found in D. Buzzati, in A. Palazzeschi’s late work, in A. Savinio , E. Morante , E. Gadda and T. Landolfi . The socially critical intentions remain – now under the conditions of the industrialization of post-war society – but are also grotesquely alienated (P. Volponi , G. Parise ). In the work of P. P. Pasolini social criticism, sought-after provocation and mythical exaggeration enter into a close connection; his two most important novels are “Ragazzi di vita” (1955; German “Bad boys”) and “Una vita violenta” (1959; German “A life under the sign of violence”), both of which are set among young people of the Roman sub-proletariat; despite their criminal tendencies, their pristine energy is portrayed as a positive element in the midst of the crisis of modern civilization. The subject of resistance was still dealt with in numerous traditionally narrated novels in the 1960s, including: by von C. Cassola (“La ragazza di Bube”, 1960; German “Bubes great love”), G. Bassani (“Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini”, 1962; German “The garden of the Finzi-Contini family”) and B. Fenoglio (“Il partigiano Johnny”, posthumously 1968; German “Der Partisan Johnny”). In addition, there were novels and stories that were closely tied to certain regions, particularly impressive are those whose subject matter is the problem of the Mezzogiorno – that is, of the Italian south (including V. Consolo , D. Rea , the documentary texts by D. Dolci ). The crime novels by L. Sciascia, devoted to the mafia and its interdependence with all strata of Sicilian society, deserve special attention, including »Il giorno della civetta« (1961; German »Der Tag der Eule«), »A ciascuno il suo« (1966; German »Everybody his own«) and »Todo modo« (1974; German »Todo Modo or Das The game for power “). Most successful, also abroad, was G. Tomasi di Lampedusa’s historical novel” Il gattopardo “(published 1958), a nostalgic look back at the world of the Sicilian nobility at the end of the 19th century, threatened by the loss of power. d. H. during the creation of the Italian national state. For more articles about Italy and Europe, please follow Constructmaterials.
Hermetism initially dominated post-war poetry; In addition to the great poets of the interwar period (Ungaretti, Montale, Quasimodo), Giorgio Caproni (* 1912, † 1990), M. Luzi, Vittorio Sereni (* 1913, † 1983) and Attilio Bertolucci (* 1911, † 2000)should be mentioned. An aesthetic reorientation became evident around 1960. Under American influence (especially E. Pound), poetry first opened up to experimental writing. The poems by Nanni Balestrini (* 1935, † 2019), Elio Pagliarani (* 1927, † 2012) and Antonio Porta (* 1935, † 1989) broke with traditional lyrical forms and content. The most prominent representative of this »Neoavanguardia« was E. Sanguineti, who had already published the first experimental work of this trend in 1956 with »Laborintus«; Such bulky texts were intended as a protest against the tendency of contemporary society to degrade literature to a consumer article. The neo-avant-garde gathered in Gruppo ’63 (after the first meeting in Palermo that year); the naming is based on that of the German group 47. Influenced by the French Tel Quel, but also by G. W. F. Hegel, T. W. Adorno and W. Benjamin, they sought a renewal of literature and their self-image, which z. In some cases, it led to the refusal of its communicative function: In addition to experimental novels (e.g. G. Manganelli and L. Malerba wrote based on the model of the French Nouveau Roman) there were intensive literary critical discussions in which the theoretician was not yet known outside of Italy U. Eco participated.
The 1970s brought a renaissance of narrative literature in various forms: Nanni Balestrini’s combative portrayal of the world of work is linked to neorealism; the literary reappraisal of fascism and war gained even more importance (A. Moravia, E. Morante, P. Levi, R. Bilenchi); G. Celati’s novellas articulate the alienation of humans in sparse language. I. Calvinos was rightly called the beacon of postmodern aesthetics”Se una notte d’inverno un viaggiatore” felt (1979; German “When a traveler in a winter night”), because of the ironic handling of literary genres and the novel play with the role of the reader (influenced by I. Calv inos collaboration with the Parisian »Oulipo«). Major lyrical publications came during this time, inter alia. by Giovanni Giudici (* 1924, † 2011), Franco Fortini (* 1917, † 1994), Amelia Rosselli (* 1930, † 1996), v. a. but by A. Zanzotto , who tried to penetrate the unconscious through language.