Scottish Gaelic

Gaelic, intrinsically linguistically Gàidhlig [ ga ː lig], the Celtic language of the Gaels (Irish) Scotland.

It probably came to Britain for the first time in the 3rd century and spread throughout what is now Scotland, especially after the 5th century. Between the 10th and 13th centuries, Ostgoidel with Scottish Gaelic and Manx Gaelic (Manx) split from the Goidelic branch of the island Celtic (Gaelic); since 15./16. In the 19th century, Scottish Gaelic and Manx Gaelic took separate developments. Scottish Gaelic has been increasingly pushed back by English to the northwest since the 11th century. a. spoken in the Outer Hebrides and parts of the highlands as well as in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.


Until about 1600 the Scottish highlands and Ireland formed a common cultural province with a common literary language. The first traces of Scottish Gaelic can be found in the “Book of Deer” (12th century). The first significant literary monument was the “Book of the Dean of Lismore” (around 1520), a handwritten collection in non-traditional orthography of poems and ballads mainly from the 15th century, which were still under Irish influence.

Scottish Gaelic literature experienced a climax in the 18th century with the works of Alexander MacDonald (Alasdair Mac Mhaighstir Alasdair, * around 1700, † 1770) and Duncan MacIntyre (Donnchadh Bàn, * 1724, † 1812), who were particularly poetic The realism of their natural poetry.

Scottish Gaelic literature experienced a further renewal in the 20th century, poetry initially by Sorley MacLean (Somhairle Mac Ghilleathain, * 1911, † 1996, George Campbell Hay) and Derick S. Thomson (Ruaraidh Mac Thomàis), more recently Donald MacAulay and Iain Crichton Smith (* 1928), in the field of short stories by I. C. Smith and Colin MacKenzie (Cailein Mac Coinnich).

There is also folk literature that has been handed down orally for centuries. Partly inspired by J. Macpherson’s ingenious forgeries, it has been collected, recorded and edited since the end of the 18th century, especially in the 19th century, but also today (including “Popular tales of the West Highlands”, 4 volumes, published 1860–62 by John Francis Campbell; “Carmina Gadelica”, 6 volumes, published 1900–71 by Alexander Carmichael et al.; “Highland songs of the fourty-five”, published 1933 by John Lorne Campbell; “More West Highland tales”, published in 1940 by John G. MacKay; “Hebridean folksongs,” published in 1969 by John Lorne Campbell and F. Collinson).


England [after fishing], part of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 130,278 km 2, (2015) 54.8 million residents; The capital is London.

Geography: According to payhelpcenter, England extends over the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain (British Isles) and is bordered by the sea except in the north (Scotland) and partly in the west (Wales) (North Sea, English Channel, St. George’s Channel, Irish Sea). The relief has two basic structures: 1) the highlands (Highland Britain) formed in the course of the Palaeozoic mountain building phases, which in England include the Cumbrian Mountains, the Cheviot Hills, the Pennine Mountains as well as Cornwall and parts of Devon with Dartmoor and Exmoor; 2) the layered plain land (Lowland Britain, the English lowlands), which is roughly defined east of a line from the mouths of the Exe rivers in the south to the Tees in the north and consists of Mesozoic layers, the actual heartland of England. The backbone of the northern part is the Pennine Mountains, which were reshaped in the Ice Age and are heavily karstified in parts. Just like the other mountainous countries, it is covered in the high areas by extensive moorland bogs and grass heaths. From the sloping Mesozoic layers during the uplift of the Pennine Mountains, the English layered landscape with two large, southwest-northeast running layered arcs developed, the Jurassic layer in the north, which extends from the Cotswold Hills (oolithic limestone) to the North York Moors, and the chalk layer step with the Chiltern Hills (northwest of London), the Lincoln Wolds and the York Wolds as prominent elevations. Broad valley zones (“vales”) separate the layers. Another layered complex in the south of London with the North Downs and the South Downs is related to the Alpidic bulge of the Weald.


Administration: Since the administrative reform in 2009, England has been divided into 6 Metropolitan Counties, 27 Counties and 56 Unitary Authorities.