Edinburgh [English ed ɪ nbərə], capital of Scotland and an independent management area in scenic location on the Firth of Forth to the east coast of Scotland, (2015) 498 800 residents (agglomeration 781 100 residents);political and cultural center of Scotland, seat of the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian Church), Catholic Archbishop’s seat; University of Edinburgh (founded 1583), Heriot-Watt University, Napier University, Queen Margaret University College, Royal Scottish Academy and others. scientific institutions, libraries, National Museums of Scotland (including Royal Museum of Scotland, National Gallery of Scotland, Dean Gallery); botanical and zoological garden. The Edinburgh International Festival for theater, ballet, music, film and art exhibitions has been held in August since 1947, parallel to other major cultural events in the city (including the Edinburgh Fringe).
According to mathgeneral, Edinburgh is a banking, insurance and business center, since 1960 it has grown into a major international financial center. Edinburgh has a sea port (Leith) and an international airport, is the seat of many publishing houses, high-tech companies (bio and information technology) and a tourist center. Industry is taking a back seat to service and administrative functions; it mainly includes the production of food and paper goods, the electronics industry, printing plants, breweries and whiskey distilleries.
The medieval townscape of the old town is determined by the castle from the late 11th century, which received its current appearance in the 16th century. The cathedral Saint Giles, which dates back to a Norman building, was renovated in the 14th and 15th centuries as a late Gothic basilica with fan vaults; her tower (completed in 1495) has an open helmet. In addition to Holyrood Abbey (only the magnificent west facade, 12th / 13th century is preserved), Holyrood Palace was built as a guest house around 1500 (rebuilt 1671–79; royal residence). Nearby is the new Scottish Parliament (1999-2004), a building complex designed by Catalan Enric Miralles in eccentric architectural forms; it encloses the former noble residence Queensberry House (17th century). The Georgian New Town is characterized by planned streets and houses in the classical style. Among the church buildings are Saint Andrew’s (1785), a transversely oval hall with a portico and later added tower, and Saint John’s (1816), a neo-Gothic basilica with fan vaults, among the public buildings Royal Exchange (1753-60), Register House (1774) and the University (1789, by J. and R. Adam). Technical monuments are the iron structures of the Dean Bridge (1829–31, by T. Telford), Waverley Station (1864), the railway bridge over the Firth of Forth (1882–90) and the glass greenhouses of the Botanical Gardens (from 1834, 1858 and 1965). B. Spence et al. created the Mortonhall Crematorium in 1967, and in 1976 the administration building of the Scottish Widows Fund and Life Assurance. Numerous projects were implemented or started in the 1980s and 1990s; this is how, among other things, the new headquarters of the Scotland Ministry in postmodern forms, the “Festival Theater” was restored and remodeled (opened in 1994), Terry Farrell designed the Edinburgh International Conference Center (opened in 1995); the new building for the Museum of Scotland (design:Gordon Benson, Alan Forsyth) opened in 1998. The American architect R. Meier created the master plan for the new office district west of the city. – The city as an architectural juxtaposition of the Middle Ages and Classicism was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995.
The volcanic rock of Castle Rock, on which the current castle was built in the late 11th century, was probably fortified as early as the Bronze and Early Iron Ages, in historical times at least since the 6th century (the Gaelic name Din Eidyn means »the Fortification of Eidyn ”, where Eidyn denoted the area around Edinburgh). The Romans, who occupied southern Scotland around 80-350 AD, established military bases near the later seaport of Leith (incorporated into Edinburgh in 1920). In the 7th century the castle hill was conquered by anglers from Northumbria and called “Edin burh”, around 950 it was conquered by the Scots. Edinburgh has been the center of royal rule since the late 11th century; In 1329 it received city rights from King Robert (I) Bruce. Among Jacob III (1460-88) it was officially elevated to the capital of Scotland. To the east of the medieval settlement, the Augustinian Abbey of Holyrood was founded in 1128, around which Canongate a separate urban settlement emerged, which slowly grew together with Edinburgh (incorporated into Edinburgh in 1856). After the court was moved to London (1603, personal union between England and Scotland) and the dissolution of the Scottish Parliament (1707, union of the two countries), Edinburgh lost its political importance, but became a bishopric in 1633. In the second half of the 18th century, the new town was built north of the castle hill, to which a large part of the citizens from the old town then migrated.