Spain Population and Language

Spain Population and Language

Spain has since the 1980s developed from an immigrant country to an immigrant country. However, immigration began to decline from the end of the first decade of the 2000s when the economic crisis hit Spain (see Modern History), and more and more Spaniards themselves have moved abroad in search of jobs. Madrid is Spain’s most densely populated region, followed by the coastal regions and archipelagos of the Canary Islands and…

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Serbia Population and Language

Serbia Population and Language

Serbs make up the dominant ethnic group in Serbia, but there are also a large number of minority groups. The number of residents has dropped steadily since the early 1990s, due to low birth rates and high emigration. The ethnic Serbs are a Slavic people who immigrated to the Balkans from today’s Ukraine in the 6th century. Alongside the Serbs are Hungarians (mainly in Vojvodina), Romans, Bosniaks, Croats, Slovaks, Montenegrins,…

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San Marino Population and Language

San Marino Population and Language

More than 10,000 San Marinians are expected to live in other countries, primarily in Italy, the United States, France and Argentina. Population density is the third highest in Europe after Monaco and Malta. The old, walled part of the capital San Marino is located on one of Titano Mountain’s peaks and is surrounded on the hillsides by the San Marino Administrative Assembly. The largest city is the industrial and border…

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Portugal Population and Language

Portugal Population and Language

The Portuguese say they are descended from the so-called Lusitans, but the residents usually have a relatively mixed ethnic background. Geographically, the population is concentrated in coastal cities. The country’s population is steadily declining as more Portuguese die than are born and more emigrants than immigrants. In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, the population shrank as poverty and unemployment forced many to emigrate. After the fall of the dictatorship in…

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Montenegro Population and Language

Montenegro Population and Language

According to the census conducted in 2011, almost half of the residents are Montenegrins. There are several minorities in the country, of which the Serbs are the largest group, followed by Bosnians, Albanians and Roma with others. In mid-2016, the population was estimated to be about 622,000. In connection with the wars in ex-Yugoslavia in the 1990s, many residents set out to escape military service, financial difficulties and an uncertain…

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Malta Population and Language

Malta Population and Language

Malta is one of the world’s most densely populated countries and population growth is high by European standards. The country is ethnically, linguistically and religiously homogeneous, with the exception of a small British minority and African and Arab refugees. About nine out of ten residents live on the main island of Malta, while less than a tenth live on the island of Gozo. The small island of Comino is inhabited…

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Macedonia Population and Language

Macedonia Population and Language

Macedonians make up about two-thirds of the population while about one-fourth are Albanians. In addition, the country also houses small groups of Turks, Romans, Serbs, Bosniaks and Vlachs, among others. Since 2019, Albanian is the official language alongside the Macedonian. Data on the size of the population is based on estimates, no census has been held since 2002. A new census would have started in 2011, but it has been…

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Luxembourg Population and Language

Luxembourg Population and Language

Half of the residents of Luxembourg are foreign nationals, the vast majority of whom come from other EU countries. Most native Luxembourgers are trilingual and speak Luxembourgish, French and German. The population has grown sharply for a long time, mainly through immigration. The number of residents has doubled since World War II. The first major immigration waves came from southern Europe, mainly Italy and Portugal. The high proportion of non-citizens…

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Italy Population and Language

Italy Population and Language

Low birth rates and aging population have become a growing problem in Italy. The country has the oldest population in the EU and one of the lowest birth rates in the world. The number of deaths exceeds the number of births each year. Nine out of ten residents speak Italian as their mother tongue, but the regional differences are large linguistically and culturally between Italians in, for example, Lombardy in…

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Greece Population and Language

Greece Population and Language

About nine in ten residents speak Greek and identify themselves as Greeks. They originate from ancient Greeks, but have been mixed through the centuries by immigration of mainly Slavic people. A major migration took place after 1923 when Greece lost a war against Turkey. At that time, about 1.5 million ethnic Greeks were forced to move from Turkey to Greece and up to half a million ethnic Turks were deported…

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