United Kingdom Population and Language

United Kingdom Population and Language

The United Kingdom is one of Europe’s most populous countries. More than four Britons out of five live in England, which according to official estimates had just over 56 million residents in 2018. That same year Scotland had 5.4 million residents, Wales 3.1 million and Northern Ireland 1.9 million. The United Kingdom has relatively high birth rates, although they have fallen in recent years (on average, British women give birth…

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Sweden Population and Language

Sweden Population and Language

Sweden is sparsely populated. This is especially true in the north, about 85 percent of the population lives in the southern third. Almost a quarter of the residents are born abroad or have parents who both come from another country. The proportion of elderly people in the population is high. This is due to long life expectancy and many years of slow population growth. However, birth rates are above the…

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Norway Population and Language

Norway Population and Language

Norway is one of Western Europe’s most sparsely populated countries. Half of the residents live in the area around the Oslo Fjord in the southeast. The coasts of southern and western Norway are also relatively densely populated. The population has traditionally been uniform with small minorities of Sami and Finns. Until the 1970s, immigration was greater than immigration. Then came mainly Swedes, Danes, British and Americans. In the 1990s, immigration…

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Lithuania Population and Language

Lithuania Population and Language

Lithuania has lost nearly a fifth of its population since 1990. The sharp decline has mainly been caused by emigration, but also by falling birth rates and deteriorating public health. Five of the six residents are Lithuanians, while the Polish-speaking people constitute the largest minority group. Since the turn of the millennium, hundreds of thousands of Lithuanians have emigrated to look for jobs in other EU countries, most of them…

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Latvia Population and Language

Latvia Population and Language

Latvia’s population is significantly declining, which is a serious social and economic problem for society. Over the past 25 years, Latvia has lost a quarter of its population as a result of low childbirth, an aging population and emigration. Above all, many young people move abroad, more than 40 percent of emigrants are 20-35 years, which has led to a reduction in the working population. Negative population growth continued in…

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Ireland Population and Language

Ireland Population and Language

The poverty forced Irish people to emigrate for a long time, but during the financially good years of the 1990s and a bit into the new century, immigration to Ireland instead took off. Many who had previously moved abroad returned home. From 2008, however, the economic crisis has forced many, especially young Irish people, to resign in search of work. Yet, fewer people are leaving today than during the last…

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Iceland Population and Language

Iceland Population and Language

Iceland is Europe’s most sparsely populated country. Only one fifth of the land area is inhabited, almost exclusively the coastal strip. Nearly two-thirds of the population lives in the capital Reykjavík and its surroundings. Iceland has an unusually uniform population, originally from Norwegian immigrants (see Older history). Most of today’s immigrants also come from the Nordic countries, but in recent years Iceland has also received labor and refugees from other…

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Finland Population and Language

Finland Population and Language

Finland is one of Europe’s most sparsely populated countries. The residents are mainly concentrated to the southern and southwestern parts of the country, where the five largest cities are located. In northern Finland, only five residents live per square kilometer. One challenge for Finland is that population growth is very low, while the population on average is getting older. In 2015, one of five Finns was 65 years or older.…

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Estonia Population and Language

Estonia Population and Language

After a quarter of a century of declining population, Estonia’s population increased slightly in 2015-2016. During the period 1990–2014, the population shrank by one-sixth due to large emigration and birth deficits. Before and after Estonia’s independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, it was mainly Russian-speaking people who left the country, whereas after the 2004 EU entry, it was mainly ester (Estonian-speaking) who emigrated to other EU countries. The emigration…

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Denmark Population and Language

Denmark Population and Language

The Danes are an urban people. Almost a quarter of the 5.7 million residents live in the capital Copenhagen, while two-thirds live in other urban areas with at least 200 residents. Only eighth Danish was living in the countryside. The population is relatively homogeneous. Every eighth resident (700,000) was immigrants or born in Denmark of foreign nationals in 2016. One third of this group comes from the Nordic countries and…

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